Valency

Valency or valency number, is a measure of the number of chemical bonds formed by the atoms of a given element. Valency for some common elements and compounds.

You are going to need valency when learning how formulas were derived for acids and bases.


ELEMENTS

Element

Symbol

Valency

Hydrogen

H

+1

Oxygen

O

-2

Carbon

C

+4

Calcium

Ca

+2

Iron

Fe

+2

Aluminium

Al

+3

Sodium

Na

+1

Potassium

K

+1

Magnesium

Mg

+2

Zinc

Zn

+2

Copper

Cu

+2

Silver

Ag

+1

Lead

Pb

+2

Chloride

Cl

-1


COMPOUNDS

Compound

Symbol

Valency

Sulphate

SO4

-2

Hydroxide

OH

-1

Carbonate

CO3

-2

Nitrate

NO3

-2

Phosphate

PO4

-3

Hydrogen Carbonate

HCO3

-1


For eg. Al(OH)3 is the formula for Aluminium Hydroxide ( a base). Its valency is 3. So it needs 3 OHs.

This is for people who don't understand valency

Valency is nothing but bonds for eg. it is CO2 because C has valency+4 and O -2. So two -2s equal -4 so they cancel out forming balanced compound.

Aluminium Phosphate is AlPO4 because Al has valency +3 and PO4 valency -3. So they cancel directly.

Calcium Phosphate is Ca3(PO4)2 because Ca's valency is +2 and PO4's valency is -3.So three times +2 and two times -3 make +6 and -6 respectively which cancel out.

Now Carbonate is unstable because CO3 has 3 atoms of oxygen which makes the valency -6 but C has only +4 so it is unstable.

Easy isn't it?

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is the valency of nitrate-2

shivangini duggal said...

nitrate's valency is -1 not -2

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I think valency of NO3 (nitrate) is 1.
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Vishnu said...

Ammonia has valency of 0
Ammonium has valency of 1+

Laurence Presland said...

Nitrate definitely has a valency of -1, It would be great if this could be corrected.

Anonymous said...

Valency of NO3 is -1 not -2 as you mentioned (y)